Problem-oriented learning (PBL) provides structure for discoveries and helps students to internalize what they have learned, leading to greater understanding. The roots of problem-oriented learning can be traced back to the Progressive Movement and John Dewey's belief that teachers should teach by appealing to students "natural instinct to research and create. Dewey wrote: "The first approach to a subject is to think in school, not to awaken words, but to acquire as much innocence as possible" (John Dewey, 1916-1944, p. 154). [Sources: 9] 
    
Problem-oriented learning (PBL) is a teaching style that leads students to become the driving force of their learning and education. It uses complex facts from the real world as a subject matter to encourage students to develop problem-solving skills, learn concepts, and absorb facts. [Sources: 1] 
    
Problem-oriented learning (PBL) is a student-centered approach in which students learn a topic by working in groups to solve open-ended problems. Nilson (2010) lists the following learning outcomes related to PBL. Instead of teaching relevant material and letting students apply knowledge to solve problems, open problems are presented. These problems drive the motivation to learn. [Sources: 2] 
    
In problem-based learning (PBL), students define their own learning goals based on triggering problems or case scenarios. The students then undertake an independent, self-directed course of study before returning to the group to discuss and refine their newly acquired knowledge. PBL is not about solving problems, but about using appropriate problems to improve knowledge and understanding. [Sources: 7] 
    
One of the biggest advantages of PBL is that students enjoy the learning process. The PBL courses are designed as a series of practical PBL examinations. The relevance of the information learned becomes immediately apparent, and students become aware of the need for knowledge as they work to solve problems. It is a challenging program that makes the study of organizational design and change fascinating for students, and they are motivated to learn what is needed to understand and solve real management problems. [Sources: 3] 
    
It is difficult to identify many problems in our field, so the key is to write scenarios for our students that evoke the kind of thinking, discussion, research and learning that must take place in order to achieve the learning outcomes. You can design PBL scenarios by embedding problems that arise from student brainstorming. Scenarios should be motivating, interesting and provide for good discussions. On this website you find examples of PBL problem scenarios. Think about real, complex issues related to your course content. [Sources: 4] 
    
Find a real-world problem that is relevant to students, whether it is one they have experienced in their own lives or in a future career. Examine the problem with critical thinking and problem solving by creating a list of unique solutions. Analyze the situation to see how the problem is compared with other problems that need to be solved. Participate in groups to find known and lesser-known methods to find information that can help solve a particular problem. Determine a learning outcome: you want your students to be able to learn and complete the learning project. [Sources: 0] 
    
Explain problem-oriented learning to students, its reasons, daily lessons, class expectations and grades. Provision of adequate resources for students, deployment of other teachers to support students' needs and orientation of students towards electronic references by media specialists. Determine a specific problem with multiple answers taking into account the interests of students. Decide to include group participation (percent) and a possible peer evaluation. [Sources: 0] 
    
Students work on problems in groups to identify gaps in their skills and knowledge by observing them in the classroom and asking them to submit a draft. Close knowledge gaps by providing feedback and letting students apply the new skills or knowledge to the problem. Students should summarize what they have learned to promote bonding (1). [Sources: 8] 
    
Problems are presented to students as they are presented in reality. Problems occur early in the learning sequence before any preparation or study has taken place. Students deal with problems in a way that allows them to argue and apply knowledge to the challenge and assess what is appropriate for their level of learning. The needs of each learning area are identified and the problem-solving process is used as a guide for individualised learning. [Sources: 9] 
    
Problem-oriented learning begins with the introduction of a structured problem learning centre. This is one that MBA students are likely to face as future professionals. Problem-oriented organisation is dynamic throughout the course. Expertise is developed through progressive problem solving. [Sources: 3] 
    
Twenty-first-century skills require the implementation of teaching that enables students to apply curriculum, take their learning into their own hands, use technology, and collaborate. Problem-oriented learning (PBL) is an educational approach that fits into your teaching toolkit. PBL is a student, question-based teaching model in which learners deal with authentic, poorly structured problems that require further research (Jonassen and Hung, 2008). [Sources: 4] 
    
PBL promotes learning by involving students in the interaction with the learning material. Students activate their previous knowledge and build on existing conceptual knowledge frameworks. In order to broaden their knowledge and understanding, students integrate the concepts they learn into everyday activities. Students search for resources in research articles, journals, web materials and textbooks. When students themselves solve problems that give them something to do, they take on more interest and responsibility for their learning. [Sources: 5] 
    
Researchers say students perform better in problem-oriented learning classes than traditional classes. Students enjoy the learning environment because it is less threatening to them than learning alone. Self-motivated students are good at teamwork and self-directed learning. Another aspect that makes students more self-motivated is that they still learn after finishing school or university. This increases the percentage of students attending, their attitude and the approach itself, which shows that the students themselves are motivated. [Sources: 5] 
    
Students are the central and active architects of their own understanding and learning (Figure 2). The next steps students take determine their level of competence at each stage of the curriculum. For example, if a student is in the second year of a pre-clinical medical degree, he or she is more experienced in this process than first-year or first-semester medical students. The instructor defines the learning objectives that guide the use of PBL. The continuum of engagement with learning activities from the lowest to the highest PBL requires that students learn. [Sources: 6] 
    
The evaluation of PBL and student learning is influenced by the evaluation methods used. Assessment plans should follow the basic principles of student testing in terms of curriculum outcomes and the use of an appropriate range of assessment methods. Assessment methods based on a de facto recall for PBL are unlikely to succeed in the curriculum. [Sources: 7] 
    
Assessments should be seamless and continuous and part of the PBL process. They should include performances and demonstrations in front of real audiences (e.g. managers and the business world) and be useful for all purposes, as part of student exhibitions and learning conferences. [Sources: 3] 
    





Sources:
    
[0]: https://educationaltechnology.net/problem-based-learning-pbl/
    
[1]: https://www.hunschool.org/resources/problem-based-learning
    
[2]: https://teaching.cornell.edu/teaching-resources/engaging-students/problem-based-learning
    
[3]: https://online.sfsu.edu/rpurser/revised/pages/problem.htm
    
[4]: https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/course-design-ideas/problem-based-learning-six-steps-to-design-implement-and-assess/
    
[5]: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Problem-based_learning
    
[6]: https://www.umaryland.edu/fctl/resources/planning-learning/problem-based-learning-pbl.php
    
[7]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1125189/
    
[8]: https://citt.ufl.edu/resources/student-engagement/adopting-active-learning-approaches/problem-based-learning/
    
[9]: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/197166/chapters/What_Is_Problem-Based_Learning%C2%A2.aspx
    
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